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Optimization has become a paradigm for an exceedingly diverse variety of problems in all fields of engineering as well as the physical, biological, and social sciences. Thus AMPL has found uses in over 400 university departments and research laboratories throughout the world. AMPL is also used in a variety of corporate research laboratories for studies in energy, communications, and new technologies.

AMPL and solvers are available at highly discounted prices to degree-awarding institutions for research carried out by affiliated faculty, associates, and students. AMPL Optimization also supports the free solver programs of CPLEX, Gurobi, and Xpress for academic use. All academic versions allow full use of machine resources, with problem sizes limited only by the memory, storage, and processors available.

See our standard price list, academic price list, and our complete ordering instructions. You can also request a 30-day trial of AMPL and all of the solvers that we distribute.

Citations of AMPL in research papers

AMPL is cited by over 1000 papers in scholarly journals indexed by Web of Science. As an indication of the breadth of work represented, we list here a selection of the most recent citing papers.

Annals of Operations Research 206, 1 (July 2013) 163-181:
Robust delay-constrained routing in telecommunications, Hijazi H, Bonami P, Ouorou A

Annals of Operations Research 208, 1 (September 2013) 291-308:
Estimating arrival rate of nonhomogeneous Poisson processes with semidefinite programming, Alizadeh F, Papp D

Chemical Engineering Science 89 (15 February 2013) 102-114:
Predicting the effects of surfactant coverage on drop size distributions of homogenized emulsions, Maindarkar SN, Bongers P, Henson MA

Computational Economics 42, 2 (August 2013) 241-266:
Using Economic Theory to Guide Numerical Analysis: Solving for Equilibria in Models of Asymmetric First-Price Auctions, Hubbard TP, Krkegaard R, Paarsch HJ

Computer Communications 36, 6 (15 March 2013) 689-697:
On provisioning diverse circuits in heterogeneous multi-layer optical networks, Xu DH, Li GZ, Ramamurthy B, Chiu A, Wang DM, Doverspike R

Computer Networks 57, 7 (8 May 2013) 1699-1713:
Privacy-preserving smart metering with multiple data Consumers, Rottondi C, Verticale G, Capone A

Computers & Chemical Engineering 49 (11 February 2013) 158-169:
Optimal cut-times finding strategies for collecting a target component from overloaded elution chromatograms, Sreedhar B, Wagler A, Kaspereit M, Seidel-Morgenstern A

Computers & Industrial Engineering 65, 4 (August 2013) 577-585:
A priori reformulations for joint rolling-horizon scheduling of materials processing and lot-sizing problem, Araujo SA, Clark A

Computers & Industrial Engineering 66, 1 (September 2013) 24-40:
The Vanpool Assignment Problem: Optimization models and solution algorithms, Kaan L, Olinick EV

Computers & Mathematics with Applications 65, 10 (May 2013) 1575-1595:
Model complexity reduction of chemical reaction networks using mixed-integer quadratic programming, Hannernann-Tamas R, Gabor A, Szederkenyi G, Hangos KM

Computers & Operations Research 41 (January 2014) 277-281:
Solution algorithm for an optimistic linear Stackelberg problem, Dempe S, Franke S

Electric Power Systems Research 97 (April 2013) 133-143:
A mixed-integer linear programming approach for optimal type, size and allocation of distributed generation in radial distribution systems, Rueda-Medina AC, Franco JF, Rider MJ, Padilha-Feltrin A, Romero R

Energies 6, 1 (January 2013) 374-399:
A Comparison of Optimal Operation of a Residential Fuel Cell Co-Generation System Using Clustered Demand Patterns Based on Kullback-Leibler Divergence, Yoshida A, Amano Y, Murata N, Ito K, Hasizume T

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking (2013) 229:
On the number of channels required for interference-free wireless mesh networks, Chaudhry AU, Chinneck JW, Hafez RHM

European Journal of Operational Research 228, 1 (1 July 2013) 273-281:
Enhanced indexation based on second-order stochastic dominance, Roman D, Mitra G, Zverovich V

European Journal of Operational Research 229, 3 (16 September 2013) 645-653:
Cone contraction and reference point methods for multi-criteria mixed integer optimization, Kallio M, Halme M

Future Generation Computer Systems 29, 7 (September 2013) 1786-1794:
Cost minimization for computational applications on hybrid cloud infrastructures, Malawski M, Figiela K, Nabrzyski J

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 35, 5 (May 2013) 969-980:
Balancing Spectral Efficiency, Energy Consumption, and Fairness in Future Heterogeneous Wireless Systems with Reconfigurable Devices, Amin R, Martin J, Deaton J, DaSilva LA, Hussien A, Eltawil A

IEEE Transactions of Power Systems 28, 1 (2013) 10-20:
Optimal Conductor Size Selection and Reconductoring in Radial Distribution Systems Using a Mixed-Integer LP Approach, Franco JF, Rider MJ, Lavorato M, Romero R

IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 10, 4 (October 2013) 1151-1157:
Hybridization of Bound-and-Decompose and Mixed Integer Feasibility Checking to Measure Redundancy in Structured Linear Systems, Bansal M, Kianfar K, Ding Y, Moreno-Centeno E

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 49, 1 (January-February 2013) 322-330:
An Energy Management System for Building Structures Using a Multi-Agent Decision-Making Control Methodology, Zhao P, Suryanarayanan S, Simoes MG

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 28, 2 (May 2013) 1073-1082:
Medium-Term Load Matching in Power Planning, Nabona N

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 28, 2 (May 2013) 969-977:
Recovery Mechanisms in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets With Non-Convexities-Part II: Implementation and Numerical Evaluation, Andrianesis P, Liberopoulos G, Kozanidis G, Papalexopoulos AD

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 28, 3 (August 2013) 3471-3479:
An Improved Network Model for Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Reactive Power and Network Losses, Zhang H, Heydt GT, Vittal V, Quintero J

Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 52, 9 (6 March 2013) 3137-3150:
Real-Time Optimization Strategies for Building Systems, Zavala VM

INFORMS Journal on Computing 25, 3 (Summer 2013) 446-460:
Column Generation for the Minimum Hyperplanes Clustering Problem, Amaldi E, Dhyani K, Ceselli A

Interfaces 43, 4 (July-August 2013) 360-372:
A Decision-Making Tool for a Regional Network of Clinical Laboratories, Andrade-Pineda JL, Gonzalez PL, Framinan JM

International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 64, 1-4 (January 2013) 555-577:
A generalized scattering data decomposition framework for determining network process-structure-property relationships in polymer materials, Tolle I, Martin LL

International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 44, 1 (January 2013) 997-1005:
A new MILP-based approach for unit commitment in power production planning, Viana A, Pedroso JP

International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 48 (June 2013) 123-130:
A mixed-integer LP model for the optimal allocation of voltage regulators and capacitors in radial distribution systems, Franco JF, Rider MJ, Lavorato M, Romero R

International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 51 (October 2013) 98-105:
A model for long-term electricity expansion planning with endogenous environmental costs, Santos HL, Legey LFL

International Statistical Review 81, 2 (August 2013) 289-306:
Improving Electricity Market Price Forecasting with Factor Models for the Optimal Generation Bid, Munoz MP, Corchero C, Heredia FJ

Journal of Chromatography A 1280 (8 March 2013) 51-63:
Simultaneous modeling and optimization of nonlinear simulated moving bed chromatography by the prediction-correction method, Bentley J, Sloan C, Kawajiri Y

Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications 156, 3 (March 2013) 726-760:
Inexact Restoration for Euler Discretization of Box-Constrained Optimal Control Problems, Banihashemi N, Kaya CY

Journal of Theoretical Biology 335 (21 October 2013) 147-152:
Optimal codon randomization via mathematical programming, Nov Y, Segev D

Journal of Time Series Analysis 34, 5 (September 2013) 532-551:
Spectral estimates for high-frequency sampled continuous-time autoregressive moving average processes, Fasen V, Fuchs F

Networks 62, 3 (October 2013) 225-242:
Theoretical and Computational Advances for Network Diversion, Cullenbine CA, Wood RK, Newman AM

Operations Research 61, 4 (July-August 2013) 990-1013:
Optimization with Multivariate Conditional Value-at-Risk Constraints, Noyan N, Rudolf G

Optimization Methods & Software 28, 2 (2013) 364-378:
The travelling salesman problem with neighbourhoods: MINLP solution, Gentilini I, Margot F, Shimada K

PloS One 8, 10 (22 October 2013) e74208:
Interior-Point Methods for Estimating Seasonal Parameters in Discrete-Time Infectious Disease Models, Word DP, Young JK, Cummings DAT, Iamsirithaworn S, Laird CD

Psychometrika 78, 1 (January 2013) 134-153:
Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators, Weissman A

Renewable Energy 61 (January 2014) 12-16:
The effect of long lead times for planning of energy efficiency and biorefinery technologies at a pulp mill, Svensson E, Berntsson T

SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization 51, 1 (2013) 442-464:
Finding interpolating curves minimizing l-infinity acceleration in the euclidean space via optimal control theory, Kaya CY, Noakes JL

SIAM Journal on Optimization 23, 1 (2013) 268-295:
Global optimization of nonlinear network design, Raghunathan AU

Soft Computing 17, 8 (August 2013) 1345-1356:
Error bounds for initial value problems by optimization, Fazal Q, Neumaier A

Systematic Biology 62, 1 (January 2013) 147-156:
Solution of the Generalized Noah’s Ark Problem, Billionnet A

Annals of Operations Research 193, 1 (March 2012) 107-127:
A stochastic programming model for the optimal electricity market bid problem with bilateral contracts for thermal and combined cycle units, Heredia FJ, Rider MJ, Corchero C

Annals of Operations Research 193, 1 (March 2012) 173-192:
HMM based scenario generation for an investment optimisation problem, Erlwein C, Mitra G, Roman D

Applied Mathematics and Computation 218, 19 (1 June 2012) 9699-9715:
Spherical coverage verification, Petkovic MD, Pokrajac D, Latecki LJ

Artificial Intelligence 184 (June 2012) 78-123:
Patrolling security games: Definition and algorithms for solving large instances with single patroller and single intruder, Basilico N, Gatti N, Amigoni F

Biometrika 99, 1 (March 2012) 223-229:
Proportional likelihood ratio models for mean regression, Huang A, Rathouz PJ

Computational Economics 39, 3 (March 2012) 219-241:
Propagation of data error and parametric sensitivity in computable general equilibrium models, Elliott J, Franklin M, Foster I, Munson T, Loudermilk M

Computers & Chemical Engineering 37 (February 2012) 143-151:
Real-time inversion in large-scale water networks using discrete measurements, Mann AV, McKenna SA, Hart WE, Laird CD

Computers & Operations Research 39, 3 (March 2012) 541-559:
Risk-averse two-stage stochastic programming with an application to disaster management, Noyan N

Energy Journal 33, 1 (2012) 53-81:
Willingness to pay for a climate backstop: Liquid fuel producers and direct CO2 air capture, Nemet GF, Brandt AR

European Journal of Operational Research 217, 2 (March 2012) 428-438:
Real options valuation of forest plantation investments in Brazil, Kallio M, Juula M, Oinonen S

Future Generation Computer Systems 28, 2 (February 2012) 358-367:
Cloud brokering mechanisms for optimized placement of virtual machines across multiple providers, Tordsson J, Montero RS, Moreno-Vozmediano R, llorente IM

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 27, 1 (February 2012) 172-180:
Imposing radiality constraints in distribution system optimization problems, Lavorato M, Franco JF, Rider MJ, Romero R

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 27, 2 (May 2012) 1125-1133:
A mixed-integer linear programming approach for multi-stage security-constrained transmission expansion planning, Zang H, Vittal V, Heydt GT, Quintero J

IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 11, 7 (July 2012) 1179-1191:
OMAN: A mobile ad hoc network design system, Fridman A, Weber S, Graff C, Breen DE, Dandekar KR, Kam M

IIE Transactions on Wireless Communications 11, 3 (March 2012) 1045-1055:
Paranoid secondary: waterfilling in a cognitive interference channel with partial knowledge, Dash D, Sabharwal A

International Journal of Production Economics 135, 1 (January 2012) 299-307:
Integrated safety stock optimization for multiple sourced stockpoints facing variable demand and lead time, Osman H, Demirli K

International Journal of Production Economics 136, 2 (April 2012) 255-265:
Single-stage formulations for synchronised two-stage lot sizing and scheduling in soft drink production, Ferreira D, Clark AR, Almada-Lobo B, Morabito R

Journal of Management Information Systems 28, 4 (Spring 2012) 39-67:
Supporting agile organizations with a decision guidance query language, Brodsky A, Egge NE, Wang XS

Optimization and Engineering 13, 2 (June 2012) 219-246:
On the optimal design of water distribution networks: a practical MINLP approach, Bragalli C, D’Ambrosio C, Lee J, Lodi A, Toth P

Optimization Letters 6, 4 (April 2012) 783-796:
Discretization orders for distance geometry problems, Lavor C, Lee J, Lee-St John A, Liberti L, Mucherino A, Sviridenko M

SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences 5, 1 (2012) 187-211:
Almost local metrics on shape space of hypersurfaces in n-space, Bauer M, Harms P, Michor PW