# Magic sequences¶

Description: Solving magic sequences through reinforced formulations and constrained programming. Some comparison between models and solvers is done, and we look into the “Another solution” problem for these sequences.

Tags: constraint-programming, educational, mp, sequences, arithmetic, reinforced-formulations, highs, gecode, cbc, mip

Notebook author: Marcos Dominguez Velad <marcos@ampl.com>

# Install dependencies
%pip install -q amplpy matplotlib

# Google Colab & Kaggle integration
from amplpy import AMPL, ampl_notebook

ampl = ampl_notebook(
modules=["open"],  # modules to install
)  # instantiate AMPL object and register magics


# Description¶

A Magic sequence is a sequence of length $n$ is a sequence of integers $s_0 … s_{n-1}$ such that for all $i$ in 0 to $n-1$, the number $i$ occurs exactly $s_i$ times in the sequence. For instance, 6,2,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0 is a magic sequence since 0 occurs 6 times in it, 1 occurs twice, etc.

This problem was first proposed in CSPLib by Toby Walsh (https://www.csplib.org/Problems/prob019/), and modelled in AMPL by Hakank (check also his amazing repository of models! http://www.hakank.org/ampl/). Sequences that are self-defined are also known as “autograms”.

In this notebook, we are reviewing the model for the magic sequences problem, how to enhance the model to solve larger instances. Finally, we are trying to reply computationally to the “Another Solution Problem” looking for alternatives sequences for a given length.

# Constraint Programming formulation¶

Writing a model with Constraint Programming is actually really neat. In ampl, we can use the exactly operator, that determines how many times a condition must be true.

In this case, for each $i=0 … n-1$, we want $i$ to occur exactly $s_{i}$ times in the sequence. In ampl:

exactly s[i] {j in 0..n-1} (s[j] = i);

%%writefile seq0.mod
reset;
# number of elements
param n;

var s{0..n-1} integer >= 0 <= n-1;

subject to seq_def{i in 0..n-1}:
exactly s[i] {j in 0..n-1} (s[j] = i);

Overwriting seq0.mod


Let’s write some Python code to call a solver and find the sequence for a certain value of n. For sequences of 0 or 1 size, there is no solution.

def is_infeasible(ampl):
# ampl.solve_result_num returns a value between 200-299 if the problem
# is not feasible
return 200 <= ampl.solve_result_num and ampl.solve_result_num <= 299

def solve_sequence(n, solver="highs"):
ampl.param["n"] = n

ampl.solve(solver=solver, verbose=False)

if is_infeasible(ampl):
return None
else:
return [s[1] for s in ampl.var["s"].to_list()]

for n in range(1, 10):
sol = solve_sequence(n)
if sol is None:
print("Infeasible for n = ", n)
else:
print("n = " + str(n) + " ==> ", end="")
print(*sol)

Infeasible for n =  1
Infeasible for n =  2
Infeasible for n =  3
n = 4 ==> 1 2 1 0
n = 5 ==> 2 1 2 0 0
Infeasible for n =  6
n = 7 ==> 3 2 1 1 0 0 0
n = 8 ==> 4 2 1 0 1 0 0 0
n = 9 ==> 5 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0


# Better models¶

Whilst in the previous section we proposed a one-constraint formulation to solve the model, adding more constraints could be helpful in order to speedup the solving process.

Although these constraints are redundant for us, they are not for the solvers. It can be proven that given a magic sequence of n elements, there a couple properties it satisfies:

$$\sum \limits_{i = 0}^{n-1} s_i = n$$

Moreover,

$$\sum \limits_{i = 0}^{n-1} i \cdot s_i = n$$

(Remember that for we start counting from zero)

Then, we propose the reinforced formulation:

%%writefile seqr.mod
reset;
# number of elements
param n;

var s{0..n-1} integer >= 0 <= n-1;

subject to seq_def{i in 0..n-1}:
exactly s[i] {j in 0..n-1} (s[j] = i);

subject to sum_of_elements:
n = sum{i in 0..n-1} s[i];

subject to sum_of_positions:
n = sum{i in 0..n-1} s[i]*i;

Overwriting seqr.mod


## Comparing times¶

There is timeit from python to easily compare the time between 2 functions or snippets of code. seq0.mod is the basic model to solve the problem. seqr.mod is the reinforced formulation.

n = 10  # run n times
%timeit -n 10 solve_sequence(n)

%timeit -n 10 solve_sequence(n)

33.5 ms ± 8.3 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10 loops each)
17.5 ms ± 2.09 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10 loops each)


Let’s plot the time difference.

Testing for bigger values of n, it is notable how the basic model struggles, so we only run it up to n=30 (feel free to tune and test this values).

import timeit

# Compute miliseconds
times1 = [timeit.timeit(lambda: solve_sequence(n), number=10) * 1000 for n in range(30)]
times2 = [
timeit.timeit(lambda: solve_sequence(n), number=10) * 1000 for n in range(100)
]

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

def plot_graph_models(times1, times2):
# Plotting the lists
plt.plot(times1, label="Basic model")
plt.plot(times2, label="Strengthen model")

plt.xlabel("n")
plt.ylabel("Time (ms)")
plt.title("Performance")

plt.grid(True)
plt.legend()
plt.show()

plot_graph_models(times1, times2)


## Comparing solvers performance¶

This is a constraint programming model, so we could expect CP specific solvers such as gecode to perform better than MIP solvers after reformulating the problem.

It is possible to use highs or cbc to solve CP problems thanks to the MP library’s reformulations.

We are only using open-source solvers for the comparison, so anybody can run and change the notebook with an ampl community license.

n_min = 0
n_max = 80
solvers = ["highs", "gecode", "cbc"]
times = {}
for solver in solvers:
times[solver] = [
timeit.timeit(lambda: solve_sequence(n, solver=solver), number=10) * 1000
for n in range(n_min, n_max + 1)
]

def plot_graph_solvers(solvers, times):
for solver in solvers:
plt.plot(times[solver], label=solver)

plt.xlabel("n")
plt.ylabel("Time (ms)")
plt.title("Solver comparison")

plt.grid(True)
plt.legend()
plt.show()

plot_graph_solvers(solvers, times)


As we could expect, for n values less than 80, the CP solver gecode performs better than highs or cbc.

## Alternative solutions?¶

In Computer Science, it is common to look for alternative solutions of the same problem. Given n, is there more than one magic sequence of n elements?

We should proof this formally, but software can be helpful to make an idea of the answer.

When solving the problem, we are looking for any feasible solution in the search space regardless an objective (there is no objective!). We could write an artificial objective function to navigate the search space looking for solutions following a certain pattern in order to solve the “Another solution problem”.

In this case we can write a natural objective. As we have already found a solution, we can look for another one that is completely different. If $s0$ is a solution for the problem, we could search for $s$ such that:

$$\max \quad \sum \limits_{i = 0}^{n-1} |s_i-s0_i|$$ (in AMPL)

maximize f: sum{i in 0..n-1} abs(s[i]-s0[i]);


Where $|\cdot|$ is the absolute value (other vector norms could be used). The absolute value becomes linearize so MIP and CP solvers can solve the problem.

the only feasible solution with optimal value 0 is the current solucion $s0$, so another solution will give a greater optimal value.

seq_alt.mod contains the new model to found alternative solutions given a magic sequence.

%%writefile seq_alt.mod
reset;
# number of elements
param n;

var s{0..n-1} integer >= 0 <= n-1;
param s0{0..n-1};

subject to seq_def{i in 0..n-1}:
exactly s[i] {j in 0..n-1} (s[j] = i);

subject to sum_of_elements:
n = sum{i in 0..n-1} s[i];

subject to sum_of_positions:
n = sum{i in 0..n-1} s[i]*i;

maximize f: sum{i in 0..n-1} abs(s[i]-s0[i]);

Overwriting seq_alt.mod


Looking for alternative solutions up to $n=25$.

def solve_sequence_alternative(n, solver="highs"):
sol = solve_sequence(n)
if sol is None:
return None

ampl.param["n"] = n
ampl.param["s0"] = sol
ampl.solve(solver=solver, verbose=False)
if is_infeasible(ampl) or ampl.obj["f"].value() == 0:
return None
else:
return [sol, [s[1] for s in ampl.var["s"].to_list()]]

for n in range(1, 25):
sol = solve_sequence_alternative(n)
if sol is None:
print("No new solutions for n =", n)
else:
print("n = " + str(n) + " ==> ", end="")
print(*sol[0])
print("n = " + str(n) + " ==> ", end="")
print(*sol[1])

No new solutions for n = 1
No new solutions for n = 2
No new solutions for n = 3
n = 4 ==> 2 0 2 0
n = 4 ==> 1 2 1 0
No new solutions for n = 5
No new solutions for n = 6
No new solutions for n = 7
No new solutions for n = 8
No new solutions for n = 9
No new solutions for n = 10
No new solutions for n = 11
No new solutions for n = 12
No new solutions for n = 13
No new solutions for n = 14
No new solutions for n = 15
No new solutions for n = 16
No new solutions for n = 17
No new solutions for n = 18
No new solutions for n = 19
No new solutions for n = 20
No new solutions for n = 21
No new solutions for n = 22
No new solutions for n = 23
No new solutions for n = 24


It seems that there is no other solution for any value of n (except of $n=4$).

# Exercices¶

1. Write a MIP formulation (without using constraint-programming) for the Magic Sequence Problem.

2. Find a formula to describe the solution for the magic sequence of $n$ elements.

3. It is possible to extend the magic sequences to an infinite number of terms. Write a model that returns the $n$ first terms of the sequence.